Anti-darkening agent - a substance that keeps certain fruits and vegetables from turning dark when it is cut and exposed to air.

Ascorbic acid - the chemical name for vitamin C; lemon juice contains large quantities of ascorbic acid and is commonly used to prevent browning of peeled, light colored fruits and vegetables.

Bar cookies - cookies cut with a knife into small squares or rectangles.

Batter - semi-liquid mixture of flour, egg, and liquid.

Blanching - heating food, such as raw vegetables, for a certain length of time to stop the action of enzymes.

Boil - healt until bubbles rise continuously and break on the surface; for rolling boil, bubbles form very rapidly.

Broil - cooking food by direct heat under a broiler in a gas or electric range.

Complex carbohydrate - starch; nutrient providing energy and fiber.

Confectioner's sugar - superfine sugar used for icings.

Cross-contamination - refers to the mixing of cooked food with raw meat or its juices, allowing bacteria to be transferred from the raw food or its juices to the cooked food.

Cut in - to mix fat, such as shortening or butter, into a flour mixture using a pastry blender or two knives in a scissor-like manner.

Drop cookies - dough dropped by teaspoons.

Fiber - the part of a plant food that is not digestable.

Foodborne illness - an illness caused by eating food contaminated by microorganisms due to improper storage, handling, or cooking of the food; characterized by vomiting and diarrhea.

Freezer burn - the loss of moisture from food during freezing, resulting in surface texture changes on the food; dry, grainy-textured whitish or brownish spots are visible and the food's flavor decreases in quality.

Freezer tape - special tape used in wrapping food packages that will be frozen.

Fruit browning - the darkening of light-colored fresh fruit that is caused by a reaction between the oxygen in air and enzymes in the fruit.

Grease - to rub a dish or pan with butter, margarine, oil, or shortening so that food does not stick.

Grease and flour - grease pan and then place approximately 1 Tablespoon of flour in the pan. Shake the pan, tilting it back and forth until it is coated with flour. Discard any flour that does not stick.

Headspace - space left at the top of a container to let foods expand as they freeze.

Knead - to work dough with hands by folding and pressing.

Lactic acid - waste product of bacteria feeding on lactose in milk.

Lactose - a type of sugar found only in milk.

Marinate - to let a food stand in a seasoned liquid (a marinade) for several hours to enhance flavor and to tenderize.

Moisture- and vapor-resistant - a material for freezing that does not let moisture or flavor escape.

Molded cookies - formed by hand into desired shape; could be flattened by fork, end of glass, etc.

Pasteurization - heat-treating process to kill bacteria.

Pastry blender - blends fat and flour; two knives can be used.

Preheat - heat to temperature needed for recipe before baking; takes about 10 minutes.

Processed food - any food that was "processed" such as enrichment, frozen, freeze dried, etc.

Rehydrate - to soak dehydrated (dried) foods in order to restore the water lost during drying.

Roll out - to flatten and spread dough with a rolling pin.

Saute - to cook briefly in a small amount of fat in a skillet until soft and glossy.

Season - add salt, pepper, herbs, spices or other seasonings to a food.

Seasonal fruits and vegetables - fruits and vegetables that are abundant at certain times of the year; generally lower in cost at that time.

Sensory evaluation - evaluating a food by means of a taste panel to rate how a food looks, smells, tastes, and feels in a tester's mouth.

Simmer - cook a liquid just below boiling point so that tiny bubbles form on the bottom or sides of the pan. Usually done after reducing heat from boiling point.

Starter culture - fresh, plain whole milk yogurt containing live, active cultures of bacteria.

Thaw - defrost.

Unit price - the price of a food based on a unit of measure, such as ounces, pounds, quarts, or liters; the product's price divided by its unit of measure.


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