D - Foodworks
Bite 1 - Healthy Food Selection
1a. Cooking with children
1. How can new foods be made more acceptable to a
preschool child? Think of five ways and try them out!
- Serve easy-to-handle foods.
- Make sure color, appearance, texture, and flavor are
- Include children in grocery shopping so they can observe
various foods (for example, the size, shape, and texture of produce such as
asparagus, eggplant, artichokes, and various squashes).
- Include children in actual food preparation so they feel
some "ownership" in the food.
- Vary preparation methods; children prefer vegetables
that are slightly undercooked and crunchy, brightly colored, served separately,
and easy to eat.
- Use mild flavored foods (a child has more sensitive taste
buds than adults).
- Smooth foods such as mashed potatoes should have no lumps.
- Children enjoy eating with other children, especially
at tables their size. Studies show they stay at the table longer and eat more
when in the company of peers.
- Serve portions appropriate for child's age.
- Meal should be preceded, not followed, by an activity
the child looks forward to the most.
- Present new food at the beginning of a meal when the
child is hungry.
- Never make an issue of accepting a new food; try again
2. Interview a dietitian, pediatrician, or pediatric
nurse to find out how children's nutrient needs change between the ages of 1
and 10. Which nutrients are most often deficient in children's diets?
After infancy, a child's weight doubles from approximately
30 pounds to 60 pounds. The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA's) for most
nutrients increase gradually during the first 10 years of a child's life; however,
the number of calories they consume to meet those needs varies.
- For 1 to 3 year-olds, the following six nutrients are
important because although this age group needs only about half as much energy
as 7 to 10 year-olds, their nutrient needs are the same.
- Vitamin C and D
- Calcium and Phosphorus
- That means there is not much room for "junk"
food. Most of the foods 1 to 3 year-olds eat must be nutrient-dense foods.
- While 7 to 10 year-olds can consume more calories to
obtain the nutrients they need, they do need four nutrients in much greater
amounts than 1 to 3 year-olds:
- twice as much folate, vitamin B-12, and magnesium
- almost twice as much Vitamin A.
The nutrients most often deficient in children's diets,
as shown in nutrition surveys, are iron, vitamin A, calcium, and to a lesser
extent vitamin C.
1b. Finding help
1. Find out about the use of alcohol, drugs, or cigarettes
during pregnancy. What syndromes or health risks to the unborn baby are associated
with the use of these items?
Essentially, substance abuse during pregnancy results in potential prematurity,
low birth weight, physical abnormalities, and addiction. Associated syndromes
include Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) for some cases of alcohol abuse and Sudden
Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in some cases of drug abuse.
1c. More than vegetables
All questions have either no right answer or involve personal feelings.
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