Glossary

 

Acid - a substance that causes a sour taste; can also dissolve certain minerals.

Anti-darkening agent - a substance that keeps certain fruits and vegetables from turning dark when it is cut and exposed to air.

Ascorbic acid - the chemical name for vitamin C; lemon juice contains large quantities of ascorbic acid and is commonly used to prevent browning of peeled, light colored fruits and vegetables.

Bar cookies - cookies cut with a knife into small squares or rectangles.

Batter - semi-liquid mixture of flour, egg, and liquid.

Beat - to mix ingredients vigorously, usually until smooth, using a spoon, whisk, hand beater or electric mixer.

Blend - to mix two or more ingredients until they are very smooth and uniform, using a spoon, whisk, hand or electric mix, blender or food processor.

Boil - healt until bubbles rise continuously and break on the surface; for rolling boil, bubbles form very rapidly.

Calories - measure of heat that helps to produce energy.

Carbohydrates - energy-providing nutrients.

Carbon dioxide - a colorless gas that helps make batter fluffy and rise during baking.

Chopped - cut into small pieces.

Complex carbohydrate - starch; nutrient providing energy and fiber.

Cross-contamination - refers to the mixing of cooked food with raw meat or its juices, allowing bacteria to be transferred from the raw food or its juices to the cooked food.

Drop cookies - dough dropped by teaspoons.

Dry pack - fruit frozen with no sugar or liquid added.

Enriched flour - flour that has some B vitamins and iron added.

Fiber - the part of a plant food that is not digestable.

Fold - to gently spoon or pour one mixture over another mixture in a bowl to prevent loss of air.

Food handler chain - includes the production, processing, marketing, and transportation of a food.

Food industry - all business operations that are involved in getting the food produced in the farmer's field to the consumer's dinner plate.

Food poisining - an illness caused by eating food contaminated by microorganisms due to improper storage, handling, or cooking of the food; characterized by vomiting and diarrhea.

Food processor - prepares and preserves food including canning, freezing, dehydrating, refining, and formulating food at a food company.

Food scientist - develops new food products that satisfy the consuers' wants and needs.

Freezer burn - the loss of moisture from food during freezing, resulting in surface texture changes on the food; dry, grainy-textured whitish or brownish spots are visible and the food's flavor decreases in quality.

Fruit browning - the darkening of light-colored fresh fruit that is caused by a reaction between the oxygen in air and enzymes in the fruit.

Grease - to rub a dish or pan with butter, margarine, oil, or shortening so that food does not stick.

Headspace - space left at the top of a container to let foods expand as they freeze.

Ingredients - food items in a recipe.

Microwave-safe - a term used to describe whether a dish, utensil, or wrap is safe to use in the microwave.

Moisture- and vapor-resistant - a material for freezing that does not let moisture or flavor escape.

Molded cookies - formed by hand into desired shape; could be flattened by fork, end of glass, etc.

Microorganisms - tiny organisms too small to see with just the eye; germs.

Muffin pan - cupcake pan.

Nutrients - chemical substances found in food that are essential for good health.

Packaging material - containers and wraps used for freezing foods; keeps food from drying out and preserves food value, flavor, texture, and color.

Pastry blender - blends fat and flour; two knives can be used.

Perishable - will spoil if not refrigerated or stored properly.

Preheat - heat to temperature needed for recipe before baking; takes about 10 minutes.

Preserving - keeping food so that it will not spoil; three ways are freezing, canning, and drying.

Protein - body-building nutrient.

Rotary egg beater - hand beater.

Seal - to fasten or close securely and to keep airtight.

Sugar pack - a method of freezing fruit using dry sugar.

Unsweetened pack - fruit frozen with no added sugar.

 

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